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NEUMES / NeumesXML Data Representation NEUMES
Data Representation
NeumesXML


  Table of Contents
§1. NEUMES Character Encoding
Mnemonics and Codepoint Assignments (sourcecode)
NEUMES Grammar (sourcecode)
§2. NeumesXML Metadata Language
NeumesXML Schema (sourcecode)
NeumesXML Documentation
§3. Example of NEUMES/NeumesXML Transcription
NeumesExample.xml (sourcecode)
§4. Glyphs Manifest
Glyphs Manifest Schema (sourcecode)
Example of a Glyphs Manifest Instance (sourcecode)
§5. Classification Methodology
NeumesXML Data Stack
§6. Pro-forma DTD Files
NeumesXML Instance Documents (DTD sourcecode)
NeumesXML Schema (DTD sourcecode)
Glyphs Manifest (DTD sourcecode)
help resourcesHelp resources:
Overview Overview of the architecture
Abstract: Qualities of NEUMES/NeumesXML Abstract:
Qualities of NEUMES/NeumesXML


Definitions: Essential Terminology of NEUMES/NeumesXML Definitions:
Essential terminology



NEUMES Character Encoding

Mnemonics and Codepoint Assignments (sourcecode)  -   
Topic: Date: Status: View:

NEUMES_characters.pen 19 June 2007 ver. 2.3 (working beta) HTML
The NEUMES character entity set for the NeumesXML Schema. It lists the NEUMES codepoint assignments in the Private Use Area of the Unicode™ (plus some Unicode Standard codepoints), and gives a symbolic name (or, mnemonic) to each codepoint. NEUMES characters are the 'low-level' data of transcription; their purpose is to represent the "prima-facie semantic content" of chant sources.

Comments: NEUMES transcription character data are designed to be sequences of hexadecimal numbers (called codepoints). Having mnemonic names for the numbers makes transcriptions 'human readable'. Mnemonics also make it easier to write and maintain specification files (such as the NEUMES grammar), and they allow the final assignment of codepoints in the NEUMES taxonomy to be deferred during the software-development process.

NEUMES Grammar (sourcecode)  -   
Topic: Date: Status: View:

NEUMES_grammar.pen 30 August 2005 ver. 2.3 (working beta) HTML
An implementation of the NEUMES context-free grammar (CFG). This enables any 'validating parser' to verify that sequences of NEUMES characters in a transcription are syntactically well-formed.

Comments: Grammatical constraints on sequences of NEUMES character data are implemented as a Regular Expression in the NeumesXML Schema. This Regular Expression appears in the Schema as an XML Entity. The Entity gets replaced at runtime by its expansion, which is defined separately in the NEUMES_grammar file. In this file, terminals of the grammar are NEUMES characters (or ranges of NEUMES characters), specified by their mnemonic names. Non-terminals of the grammar are implemented as XML Entities. These techniques allow us to express a long and complicated regular expression in terms that are concise and easy to maintain.


NeumesXML Metadata Language

NeumesXML Schema (sourcecode)  -   
Topic: Date: Status: View:

NeumesXML_main.xsd 27 February 2008 ver. 2.4 (working draft) HTML
The NeumesXML Schema (an XML Schema document) defines an XML language for chant-transcription documents. A NeumesXML document is a 'wrapper' for NEUMES character data, enabling the storage and Internet transmission of these data. NeumesXML also accommodates descriptive information about a chant source, information about the transcription, and links to related resources on the Web. Furthermore, NeumesXML tags are used to 'mark up' NEUMES data with editorial remarks and to record non-semantic prima-facie features of a source.
Unlike NEUMES (which uses hexadecimal codepoints), NeumesXML tags are written entirely in ASCII characters. Their information content normally is in the form of attributes inside the tags.
This is an operational, draft version of the NeumesXML Schema; it has been checked for structural integrity and it has been partially populated with musicological information.

Comments: XML Schema is more powerful than XML DTD. It allows NeumesXML to define whether a sequences of NEUMES characters is 'well-formed', in conformance with the NEUMES formal grammar. It allows for assertions about co-dependency of tag attributes. It allows the partitioning of lexical space, such that Eastern and Western notational markup can be kept separate. And so forth.
We plan that presentation formatting (such as for critical editions), results of musicological analysis, and other kinds of secondary markup by end-uses of transcriptions will be defined in separate, parallel XML languages.


NeumesXML_west.xsd 27 February 2008 ver. 2.4 (working draft) HTML
The lexical-space partition for NeumesXML Schema tags that are peculiar to Western European (viz., Latin-language) chant sources.

Remark: This is an operational draft version that successfully implements the NeumesXML Schema partitioning mechanism. Its content has not yet been fully populated.


NeumesXML_east.xsd 30 August 2005 ver. 2.3 (working beta) HTML
The lexical-space partition for NeumesXML Schema tags that are peculiar to Eastern European (Byzantine, Greek, Russian, Slavonic, etc.) chant sources.

Remark: This is a test draft version that successfully implements the NeumesXML Schema partitioning mechanism. Its content has not yet been fully populated and is under advisement.


NeumesXML_lang.xsd 30 August 2005 ver. 2.3 (working draft) HTML
A 'helper' Schema, declaring languages of the chant text, including standard language-identification codes.

NeumesXML_obd.xsd 30 August 2005 ver. 2.2 (working draft) HTML
The "out-of-band" declarations (OBD) are for use in annotation branches of NeumesXML, including documentation and appInfo leaves. These declarations can be used by an XSLT stylesheet or other program for additional, non-XSD processing.

Comments: This Schema serves as a kind of 'meta-schema' for regulating the well-formedness of documentation and appInfo tags across the NeumesXML application's several Schemas.



NeumesXML Documentation  -   

Topic: Date: Status: View:

Hierarchy of Tags, with Usage
Western Chant Sources
8 September 2004 draft HTML
Gives a visual hierarchy of the NeumesXML tag set for Western chant manuscripts, with detail frames about how each tag is used.

Remarks: Requires browser frames. Automated generation of detail frames from the NeumesXML Schema is operational. Automated generation of the tag-navigation tree is currently under construction (this version has a handmade tree).

NeumesXML Schema: Definition of Terminology; and General Structure
17 November 2003 rough draft HTML
Gives definitions of terminology used in discussing the NeumesXML Schema, and explains the general structure of the Schema.

Roster of NeumesXML Tags
3 October 2002 rough draft HTML
Gives an overview and details of the NeumesXML tag set.

Note: Content of the page is currently inaccurate while page layout is being tested.




Example of NEUMES/NeumesXML Transcription


NeumesExample.xml (sourcecode)  -   
Topic: Date: Status: View:

Western chant, heighted notation 30 August 2005 beta-test HTML
Gives an example of sourcecode in XML for transcription of a neumed chant.



Glyphs Manifest  


Glyphs Manifest Schema (sourcecode)  -   
Topic: Date: Status: View:

glyphs_manifest.xsd 27 December 2007 ver. 1.0 HTML
The Glyphs Manifest Schema (an XML Schema document) defines an XML language for description of vital data about glyph image sets of various neume notation families.

Example of a Glyphs Manifest Instance (sourcecode)  -   
Topic: Date: Status: View:

square_manifest.xml 25 June 2006 ver. 1.0 HTML
Example of an Instance document of the Glyphs Manifest Schema for the Western square-neume notation family.



Classification Methodology


NeumesXML Data Stack  -   
Topic: Date: Status: View:

Classification Scheme 30 October 2003 partial draft HTML
Gives an abstract description of the classification methodology that was used in designing the NEUMES data representation.

Note: The page is currently under construction.



Pro-forma DTD Files


NeumesXML Instance Documents (DTD sourcecode)  -   
Topic: Date: Status: View:

NeumesXML.dtd 30 August 2005 ver. 2.3 HTML
DTD (XML Document Type Definition) for instance documents of the NeumesXML Schema (that is to say, for transcription files in NeumesXML format).


NeumesXML Schema (DTD sourcecode)  -   

Topic: Date: Status: View:

NeumesXML_schema.dtd 30 August 2005 ver. 2.3 HTML
DTD for the NeumesXML Schema. In particular, this allows the use of mnemonic names for NEUMES codepoints within the Schema. It also includes the NEUMES regular grammar in the Schema.

NeumesXML_obd.dtd 28 August 2005 ver. 1.0 HTML
DTD for the "Out-of-Band Declarations" (OBD) of the NeumesXML Schema. OBD are used to constrain the structure of XML tags that are added inside the documentation tags of Schema files,and to facilitate interaction with other programs via appInfo tags. The OBD Schema acts as a 'meta-schema'.


Glyphs Manifest (DTD sourcecode)  -   

Topic: Date: Status: View:

glyphs_manifest.dtd 18 June 2007 ver. 1.0 HTML
DTD for the Glyphs Manifest Schema.


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Copyright 2005-2008, The University of Oxford.
Copyright 2003-2005, Louis W. G. Barton.
Copyright 2002-2003, The President and Fellows of Harvard College; contains software or other intellectual property licensed from Louis W. G. Barton, copyright 1995-2001 by Louis W. G. Barton.